The Battle of Blue Licks happened on August 19, 1782;
ten months after Cornwallis had surrendered at Yorktown. This bloody
frontier encounter is usually noted as the last combat of any size of the
Revolutionary War. It took place near a salt spring along the Licking
River in Central Kentucky north of Boonesborough and Bryan's Station. It
was the most successful part of the invasion of an almost 1000 strong
combined army of Ohio Indian Nations warriors, British Regulars and
Queen's Rangers into Kentucky and West Virginia.
On August 2nd,
one of the largest congresses of the Ohio Indian nations confederation was
held at the principal Shawnee town of Chalahgawtha, then on the Little
Miami River. Present were contingents from all the Ohio nations. Simon
Girty, one of the principle organizers of the congress, learned that a
group of 50 redcoats under Capt. William Caldwell in company with Iroquois
and Mingoes led by the Mohawk leader Joseph Brant and the Tory Alexander
McKee were headed south from Detroit to attack Wheeling. After riding long
and hard to intercept them, he persuaded them to join the gathering at
Chalahgawtha. There, speaking before a council of all participants, he
outlined a plan that led to the frontier people south of the Ohio's worst
defeat in their long war with the Ohio Indians--the Battle of Blue Licks.
The plan was to draw the Kentucky Militia into an ambush. The
Indian and British force would invade; their immediate targets would be
Bryan's Station and Lexington, just six miles apart in Central Kentucky.
The Americans under Williamson were back at their more easterly
settlements in Pennsylvania and Wheeling and they were alert to danger, he
argued. Thus, he continued, an invasion would have more success attacking
in Central Kentucky where it would not be expected.
Half or more
of the expeditionary force would hide at Blue Licks, he proposed, while
the remainder would proceed on to attack Bryan's Station, which Girty knew
to be weak and undersupplied. They would watch the station until a few
people were outside the fortification, and then they would attack,
allowing the few outside the walls to escape knowing that they would run
straight to Lexington for help; Lexington was strongly manned and
No one doubted that Lexington would send out a rescue
force; The rescuers would be who the Indians would really be after. The
Indians' spies would know the rescue force's size as soon as it began to
move toward Bryan's Station; if it was small enough, they would simply
waylay the Kentuckians en route. If the Kentuckians were too many, the
Indians would retreat making sure that the Kentuckians followed closely so
as to lead them back to Blue Licks where the much larger remaining Indian
force would lay in ambush. The value in the plan, Girty emphasized, was
that when the Kentuckians saw as large a force of Indians as the Bryan's
Station attackers would be, and seeing in addition that they had British
soldiers with them, none would never believe that there could be as many
more waiting in ambush.
The expedition was mounted. Half the
invading force hid itself at Blue Licks and the remainder went on to lay
siege to Bryan's Station, being careful to allow a few to escape and run
to Lexington for help. The first rescue force was fifty men strong; it was
quickly beaten off by the invaders. The Indians did not bother to use
their ambush strategy; not enough attackers; they were after bigger game.
Next day 180 Kentuckians converged on the place only to find the
Indians gone. This militia force was composed of several groups from
neighboring counties and stations and, as was the usual case, the
leadership consisted of the various militia leaders working more or less
in cooperation with each other. Daniel Boone was leader of 45 Fayette
County militia under the general leadership of John Todd, an upper class
lawyer from Virginia who had served in the Vincennes campaign with Clark.
The other major contingent was from Lincoln County and under the
leadership of Stephen Trigg who was assisted by Hugh McGary of
The officers immediately held council to decide
whether they should pursue the retreating Indians immediately or wait for
Colonel Benjamin Logan, who they knew to be about a day behind them
travelling in their direction with a force of several hundred. McGary was
mentally unstable. He had lost family to Indian attack five years earlier
and, since then, had become increasingly hostile and combative to
virtually all who had to deal with him. All the same, he urged caution and
spoke for waiting for Logan to catch up with them. Todd criticized McGary
as being "timid" and stated that they could not afford to let the Indians
get away. Finally, they decided to take up the chase the following
morning. McGary, insulted by Todd's comments, nonetheless held his tongue
for the time being.
Next day the Americans followed the Indian
army's trail to within a few miles of the Lower Blue Licks. Boone grew
increasingly upset with what he was seeing; the Indians were making no
effort to conceal their passage; in fact, they were doing everything they
could to make their trail easy to follow. They littered the trace with
their garbage, they cut blazes on trees where they passed; Boone also saw
evidence that they were walking in each other's tracks so as to conceal
their actual numbers. He saw ambush in everything the Indians were doing.
Early the next morning, August 19, 1782, a Monday, the Americans
arrived at the south bank of the Licking River near the Blue Licks salt
springs. The river makes a sharp loop here around a bare, rocky hill on
the side opposite the Americans. The Indian army lay hidden in a series of
wooded ravines at the crest of the hill. As the Americans assembled on
their side of the river a group of warriors appeared in plain view on the
hilltop. They were the decoy.
Todd and Trigg called another
officers' council; about fifteen men were there in all. Included were
Boone and McCary.
Boone urged caution; he pointed out all the
things he had observed. "They intend to fight," he said. McCary grew angry
and defiant. "Them that ain't cowards follow me," he shouted leading a
general charge across the river directly into the ambush and hand-to-hand
battle that followed. The result was disaster for the Kentuckians and
resounding victory for the Ohio Indian/British force. Seventy-two
Kentuckians were killed in that fight; more than a third of their force.
The Indians and British lost only three men and four more were slightly
wounded. This defeat marked the lowest point in the Americans' fortunes in
the struggle for possession of the West.
Amongst those known to have lost their lives was John Douglass
and Israel Boone, son of Daniel.
John's father was,
possibly, named James David Douglass who may or may not have
been a Deputy Surveyor in Virginia and what later became
Kentucky. We would
welcome help tracing this lineage.